Atoms, Electrons and Orbitals
The 'Rutherford' model for the atom proposed that an atom consisted of a very small positive nucleus surrounded by a much larger volume, occupied by an appropriate number of electrons. We now know that the nucleus contains numbers of protons and neutrons and that electrons are concentrated in various regions of space, each of which is associated with a particular electronic energy state.

The energy of electrons, the regions of space they occupy and the ways they interact to form bonds in molecules are fundamental to chemistry. This module reviews the forces which operate between atomic particles and builds to the modern quantum mechanical description of electronic orbitals in atoms.

Structure of the Atom
Representing Atomic Nuclei
Electrons in Atoms
The Orbital Picture
Quantum Numbers and Orbitals
Atomic Orbitals 1
Atomic Orbitals 2
Quantum Numbers
Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals 1
Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals 2
Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals 3
True or False?
Atomic Energy Levels
Session Summary
Contacting ChemCAL Online