Acids and Bases
Acid-base reactions are among the most fundamental and wide-spread of chemical processes.

These carvings of workers who built this cathedral in northern Spain over 1000 years ago have been worn by the weather. In large cities, where oxides of N and S may make the atmosphere quite acidic, statues like these can react away in only a few years.

Acids and Bases - Definitions
Conjugate Acids and Bases
Identifying Acids and Bases
The Hydrogen Ion in Water
Strong Acids
The Hydroxide Ion in Water
Measurement of Acidity - pH
pH Calculations
Measurement of Basicity - pOH
Self-Dissociation of Water
Session Summary
Contacting ChemCAL Online