Introduction to Chemical Energetics
Learning outcomes  after studying this topic, you should be able to:
 identify the system and the surroundings in a chemical process
 identify the ways in which energy is transferred in a chemical process
 identify the sign of heat and work in chemical processes
 give examples of chemical reactions that do work
 calculate energies in Joules or Calories
 calculate the energy required to change the temperature of a substance using its heat capacity
 calculate the energy released or absorbed by a reaction from data obtained using a bomb calorimeter
 explain the origin of the heat of reaction
 understand the relationship between internal energy and enthalpy
 calculate ΔH of a reaction using Hess's Law of heat summation
 calculate ΔH^{0} of a reaction using tables of Δ_{f}H
 appreciate the origin of heat release in net bond breakage
 explain the origin of gas expansion and heat transfer in terms of probability
 understand the microscopic definition of entropy in terms of the number of ways of arranging a system
 define both the 1^{st} and 2^{nd} laws of thermodynamics
 predict the entropy changes between some simple chemical systems
 calculate ΔS of a reaction using tables of standard entropies
 calculate Δ_{univ}S or ΔG of a reaction and predict spontaneity
 understand the relationship between Δ_{univ}S and ΔG
 calculate ΔG^{0} based on values of ΔH^{0} and ΔS^{0} or from values of Δ_{f}G^{0}
 explain the effects of temperature and pressure on ΔG^{0}
 explain in principle how one maximizes the useful work obtainable from a chemical reaction
Textbook and eBook References
Lecture Notes, Tutorial Worksheets & Answers and Suggested Exam Questions
ChemCAL, iChem and Contributed Resources
Marbles defy marbles
Description: Clip from You Tube showing marbles breaking the 2nd Law
Tags: Entropy  2nd Law
Contributed by Adam Bridgeman



Hunt for absolute zero
Description: Nobel prize winning scientists discuss the quest for absolute zero
Tags: 3rd Law
Contributed by Adam Bridgeman



