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CHEM1101 - Learning Outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are described below. These outcomes are built from the learning activities in lectures, tutorials, laboratory and independent study. Important attributes are:
  • the ability to apply scientific knowledge and critical thinking to identify, define and analyse problem and create solutions: you will be expected to demonstrate these outcomes on problems drawn from the material presented in the course and to novel situations.
  • the ability to evaluate your own performance and development and to recognize gaps in your knowledge: keep a portfolio of your progress using the 'self assessment tool'
The ways in which these outcomes are assessed are described in detail in the unit outline. When reading this, you should note that the laboratory course is self-contained: material from the lab course is assessed in the lab course and is not re-assessed in the tutorial quizzes or examination.
  • Generic Attributes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  apply scientific knowledge and critical thinking to identify, define and analyse problems, create solutions, evaluate opinions, innovate and improve current practices
    •  gather, evaluate and deploy information relevant to a scientific problem
    •  disseminate new knowledge and engage in debate about scientific issues
    •  recognize the rapid and sometimes major changes in scientific knowledge and technology, and to value the importance of continual growth in knowledge and skills
    •  use a range of computer software packages in the process of gathering, processing and disseminating scientific knowledge
    •  make value judgements about the reliability and relevance of information in a scientific context
    •  evaluate your own performance and development, to recognize gaps in knowledge and acquire new knowledge independently
    •  set achievable and realistic goals and monitor and evaluate progress towards these goals
    •  appreciate sustainability and the impact of science within the broader economic, environmental and socio-cultural context
    •  present and interpret data or other scientific information using graphs, tables, figures and symbols
    •  work independently and as part of a team and to take individual responsibility with a group for developing and achieving goals
    •  actively seek, identify and create effective contacts with others in a professional and social context, and maintain those contacts for mutual benefit
    •  recognize the importance of safety and risk management and compliance with safety procedures
    •  manipulative equations and measurements with due regard for significant figures and unit conventions
  • Laboratory Skills
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  perform careful and safe experiments
    •  accurately report scientific observations
    •  work as a professional scientist with due regard for personal safety and for the safety of those around you
    •  interpret observations in terms of chemical models with appropriate use of chemical equations and calculations
    •  perform calculations containing concentrations, moles and masses
    •  choose and use appropriate glassware for a given task
    •  choose and use balances accurately and appropriately
    •  present and interpret data or other scientific information using graphs, tables, figures and symbols
    •  work as a member of a team and to take individual responsibility within a group for developing and achieving group goals
    •  actively seek, identify and create effective contacts with others in a professional and social context, and maintain those contacts for mutual benefit
  • Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  use the appropriate notation to denote nuclides and isotopes
    •  explain the factors which govern nuclear stability
    •  balance nuclear equations
    •  recognize the proton-proton chain and primary nucleogenesis reactions
    •  use given equations to calculate quantities such as activities, specific activity and molar activity
    •  calculate ages of artefacts from activity ratios
    •  use and manipulate equations describing exponential decay
    •  explain the main mechanism of biological damage by ionising radiation
    •  explain the main factors that contribute to the severity of radiation damage
    •  explain why radioactive isotopes are useful in cancer therapy and imaging, and identify the most useful types of radiation for each
    •  predict the mode of decay for a given unstable nucleus
  • Wave Theory of Electrons and Atomic Energy Levels
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  calculate the energy of a photon from its wavelength, and its wavelength from its energy
    •  relate absorption and emission of photons to changes in electron energy levels
    •  calculate energy levels for one-electron atoms
    •  calculate the momentum of particle from its wavelength and calculate the wavelength of a particle from its momentum
  • Shape of Atomic Orbitals and Quantum Numbers
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify the key features of waves in 1-3 dimensions - displacement, amplitude, nodes
    •  understand the representations of waves as cross-sectional graphs, contour plots and lobe representations
    •  recall that s orbitals have n – 1 spherical nodes
    •  explain why the spatial extent of the electron increases with energy
    •  identify the principal quantum number
    •  recall the Born interpretation of the electron wave
    •  explain the meaning of the orbital quantum numbers, n, l, m, and the designation of orbitals such as 1s, 3d, 4p, 4f
    •  recognise the representations of waves as cross-sectional graphs, contour plots and lobes
    •  recognise the shapes of atomic orbitals in these representations
    •  deduce the number of nodal planes and spheres for an s, p or d orbital
    •  draw a lobe representation of an s or p orbital
  • The Periodic Table and Periodic Trends
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain the shape of the Periodic Table using the quantum chemical atomic model
    •  recognise trends in the Periodic Table, such as atomic radii, ionic radii and ionisation energies
    •  understand and explain reasons for these trends
    •  use trends to predict reactivity
  • Spectroscopy
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  relate absorption and emission of photons to changes in electron energy levels
    •  calculate emission and absorption wavelengths from energy levels
    •  identify constraints on analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)
    •  describe how the hollow cathode lamp operates, and why it is central to sensitive AAS measurements
    •  use the Beer-Lambert law
    •  understand the relationship between absorption and observed colour
    •  relate electronic absorbance and emission spectra to electronic structure
    •  recall the meanings of HOMO and LUMO, and determine the lowest energy electronic transition
    •  describe the process of molecular spectroscopy
    •  compare and contrast atomic and molecular spectroscopy
    •  calculate energy levels for one-electron atoms
  • Ionic Bonding
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  describe and explain the periodic trends in electronegativity
    •  explain the origin of ionic bonding
    •  explain why ionic interactions lead to crystals rather than small molecules
    •  explain the meaning of the term “lattice energy”
    •  understand how the lattice energy is influenced by size and charge of the ions
    •  explain how ionic radii influence crystal structure, and why they differ from atomic radii
  • Bonding - MO theory
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain how electron sharing leads to lowering of electronic energy in terms of increasing the de Broglie wavelength.
    •  predict electronic configurations and bond orders for diatomic molecules, given a molecular orbital (MO) energy diagram
    •  predict relative binding energies and bond lengths from bond order
    •  recognise a bonding or antibonding orbital from the lobe representation
    •  recognize a σ orbital and a σ* orbital
    •  recognize a π orbital, a π orbital and a non-bonding orbital
    •  identify the valence electrons and orbitals in diatomic molecules
    •  distinguish between polar and apolar bonds in diatomic molecules and relate it to electron attraction of a nucleus (electronegativity)
    •  draw out ground state electronic configurations for molecules and molecular ions given their allowed energy levels
    •  calculate bond order from molecular electronic configurations
    •  explain the difference between paramagnetism and diamagnetism
    •  predict whether a molecule will be diamagnetic or paramagnetic from its orbital energy diagram
    •  recall the meaning of HOMO and LUMO and determine the lowest energy electronic transition
  • Band Theory - MO in Solids
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  recognise that interactions of σ-orbitals gives rise to a valence bands, and σ* orbitals give rise to a conduction band in covalent networks
    •  use, define and explain the concepts of conduction band, valence band, band gap, hole, acceptor level, donor level, n-doping and p-doping
    •  explain the relationship between band gap and electrical and optical properties
    •  explain how n or p doping gives rise to conductivity of electrons and hole
    •  explain why the conductivity of semiconductors increases with temperature
    •  recognise a diagram of the band structure of insulators, metals and types of semiconductor.
       
    •  recall that the number of molecular orbitals increases with the number of atoms in a molecule
  • Lewis Structures
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  draw out plausible Lewis structures for simple polyatomic molecules
    •  assign bond orders based on sharing of electron pairs, resonance structures and formal charges
    •  explain the relationship between resonance and electron delocalisation in molecular orbitals
  • Molecular Shape
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  describe the electron pair geometries and molecular shapes for molecules containing between 2 and 6 electron pairs
    •  assign molecular shapes based on Lewis structures and VSEPR theory
    •  explain the difference between polar bonds and polar molecules
    •  predict, based on molecular shape, whether a molecule will have a net dipole moment
    •  convert between Lewis and stick representations of simple organic molecules
    •  identify carbon-carbon single, double and triple bonds
    •  appreciate the consequences of restricted rotation around double bonds

       

    •  appreciate the existence of non-superimposable images in some organic molecules
    •  predict the molecular shape around atoms within an organic molecule
    •  explain the lock-and-key hypothesis for molecular recognition
    •  determine whether a molecule is polar
  • Types of Intermolecular Forces
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify different types of intermolecular forces
    •  determine which forces are present in different molecules
    •  assess which forces are more important
    •  analyse the effect of intermolecular forces on boiling points
  • Gas Laws
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  use the ideal gas law to relate the number of moles, pressure, volume and temperature of a gas
    •  relate gas density and molar mass
    •  convert between the common units of pressure (atm, Pa and mmHg)
    •  use the appropriate value of the gas constant, R
    •  use Dalton's law of partial pressures
  • Liquids
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  calculate concentrations in molarity, molality, mole fraction, % w/w and %v/v and perform dilutions
    •  calculate expected freezing point depressions of solutions
    •  calculate expected solution osmotic pressures
    •  explain the origin of osmotic pressure
  • Material Properties (Polymers, Liquid Crystals, Metals, Ceramics)
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain complementary colours
    •  explain the origins of discrete and continuous spectra
    •  relate wavelength of a photon to energy difference
    •  describe the qualitative differences between atomic and molecular electronic spectra
    •  define conductivity, paramagnetism and diamagnetism
    •  recognise conductors and insulators by their conductivity
    •  define an allotrope
    •  define UV-A -B, and -C radiation.
  • Liquid Crystals
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  describe lyotropic, nematic and smectic A & C thermotropic liquid crystals
    •  explain the general features of the liquid crystal state
    •  describe how liquid crystals can be used to generate displays
    •  relate intermolecular forces to boiling points and surface tension
  • Thermochemistry
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  define system, surroundings and universe for simple thermodynamic processes
    •  explain the difference between heat and temperature
    •  use the First Law of Thermodynamics to calculate the change in internal energy accompanying heating and expanding an ideal gas
    •  relate temperature and heat change using specific and molar heat capacities
    •  calculate internal energy changes using the bomb calorimeter
  • Enthalpy
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  define the difference between internal energy and enthalpy
    •  draw enthalpy diagrams for endothermic and exothermic processes
    •  obtain the enthalpy change using a coffee-cup calorimeter
    •  define the enthalpy change for phase changes and for the formation, atomization and combustion of compounds
    •  use Hess's Law
    •  estimate atomization energies from bond enthalpies
    •  define standard states
    •  combine enthalpies of formation to work out the enthalpy change for chemical reactions
    •  combine enthalpies of reactions to work out the enthalpies of formation
    •  explain the advantages and disadvantages of different fuels
    •  work out the efficiency of fuels
  • Entropy
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain the thermodynamic concept of spontaneity
    •  define entropy as the tendency of energy to spread out in a spontaneous process
    •  predict the relative entropy of solids, liquids and gases and how entropy is affected by temperature, molecular size and complexity
    •  define and use the Second Law of Thermodynamics
    •  relate the entropy change of the universe to the Gibbs free energy
    •  use Gibbs free energy to predict spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes
  • Oxidation Numbers
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  work out the oxidation number for an element in a compound
  • Nitrogen Chemistry and Compounds
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain the difference between a fuel and an explosive
    •  explain the concept of activation energy
    •  work out the oxidation number of nitrogen in its compounds
    •  work out the shapes and the number of unpaired electrons on nitrogen oxides and halides
    •  discuss the NOx cycle in the atmosphere
    •  explain how the temperature of a planet without a greenhouse effect can be calculated
    •  comment on the evidence for global warming and the most important greenhouse gases
  • Equilibrium
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain what reactions are spontaneous and under what conditions
    •  explain the dynamic nature of equilibrium processes
    •  write the equilibrium constant for any reaction or process
    •  use initial, change, equilibrium (ICE) tables
    •  calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for a reverse reaction from its value for a forward reaction, and if the stoichiometry is changed
    •  calculate the equilibrium constant for a reaction obtained by combining two other reactions
    •  explain the difference between the equilibrium constant, K, and the reaction quotient, Q
    •  write down the reaction quotient and use it to predict the direction of change
    •  use Le Chatelier's principle to predict the response of a system at equilibrium to changes in temperature, pressure and composition
    •  explain how catalysts effect chemical reactions without changing the equilibrium concentrations
    •  relate the equilibrium constant, K, to the change in the Gibbs free energy
  • Equilibrium and Thermochemistry in Industrial Processes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain the main processes used industrially to extract metals from their ores
    •  use Ellingham diagrams to predict which metals can be extracted using coke at different temperatures
    •  discuss the role of the chemical industry in the modern world and Australia with particular regard to the Top Ten chemicals
    •  outline the thermodynamic principles behind the industrially optimized routes to sulfuric acid and ammonia
  • Electrochemistry
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  relate the sign of the electrode potential to the direction of spontaneous change
    •  combine half cells to produce balanced redox reactions and to calculate cell potentials
    •  identify the species which are being oxidzied and those being reduced in a redox reaction
    •  write down the cell notation for a Galvanic cell including ones involving inert electrodes
    •  use the Nernst equation to calculate the effect of concentration on the cell potential
    •  relate the electrode potential and the reaction quotient
    •  relate the standard electrode potential, the equilibrium constant and the change in Gibbs free energy
  • Electrolytic Cells
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify the processes and species formed at the anode and cathode of Galvanic and electrolytic cells
    •  identify the direction of electron flow in Galvanic and electrolytic cells
    •  identify what can be electroysed and the role of over-potential in the electrolysis of water and in the production of NaOH and Cl2
    •  use Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis to relate the amount of product to the electric current applied
  • Electrochemistry (Batteries and Corrosion)
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain the difference between primary and secondary batteries
    •  identify the chemical reactions in common batteries
    •  explain how fuel cells work
    •  explain how corrosion occurs and can be reduced
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