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CHEM1611 - Syllabus


Chemistry A (Pharmacy)


The order of topics presented here is essentially the order of presentation in the lecture course, although individual lecturers may make some variations from this. Some topics span more than one week.

Jump to week <1> <2> <3> <4> <5> <6> <7> <8> <9> <10> <11> <12> <13>


Week

Topics covered

1

Prologue
- admin. matters
- overview of course
Atomic Structure
- electromagnetic radiation and the nature of matter
- atomic spectrum of hydrogen
- Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom
- wave mechanics
- atomic orbitals and quantum numbers
- electrons in atoms

2

The Periodic Table
- metals and non-metals
- electron configuration
- d-Block elements
- trends in the periodic table
- elements essential to sustain life
- elements known to destroy life
- elements that have therapeutic value

Chemical Bonding
- ionic and covalent bonds
- Lewis structures and the octet rule
- multiple bonds and resonance structures

3

The Shapes of Molecules
- VSEPR theory of organic compounds
- hybridisation of organic compounds
- electronegativity, bond polarity and dipole moments

Intermolecular forces
- dipole forces
- hydrogen bonds
- dispersion (London) forces

4

Acids and Bases
- the nature of the hydrated proton
- the Brønsted Lowry theory of acids and bases
- the dissociation of water and the pH scale
- strong, weak and polyprotic acids and strong and weak bases and salts
- relation between Ka and Kb, conjugate pairs

5

Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- definition: the chemistry of carbon compounds
- importance of carbon
- hybridisation of C, O, and N
- formal charge
- writing structural formulas, abbreviated structural formulas, use of stick notation
- functional groups

Alkanes
- nomenclature
- s-bonds and structure
- conformational and constitutional isomers
- cycloalkanes
- "chair" structure of 6-membered rings
- configurational isomers of substituted cycloalkanes

Alkenes
- nomenclature
- p-bonds and structure
- constitutional isomers
- addition reactions, mechanism of electrophilic addition

6

Alkenes (continued)
- classification of nucleophiles and electrophiles
- Markovnikov's rule: carbocation stability
- reaction summary (addition reactions, orientation of addition and carbocation stability)

Aromatic Hydrocarbons
- benzene: aromaticity, resonance and molecular orbital picture
- nomenclature
- electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel-Crafts acylation

7

Organic Halogen Compounds
- alkyl halides: classification as 1°, 2°, 3°
- nomenclature
- nucleophilic substitution reactions of 1° and 2°
- lack of reactivity of aryl halides
- formation of Grignard reagents
- reaction summary

Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers and Thiols
- alcohols: classification as 1°, 2°, 3°
- nomenclature
- hydrogen bonding
- acid-base reactions of alcohols and phenols
- reactions of alcohols: dehydration, oxidation, substitution
- thiols: acidity and oxidation to disulfides
- NADH/NAD+ cycle and thiol disulfide redox cycle
- biologically important thiols and disulfides
- reaction summary

8

Amines
- amines: classification as 1°, 2°, 3°, 4° and aryl amines (aniline)
- nomenclature
- basicity and alkylation of 3° amines
- conversion to amides
- examples of biologically active amines
- reaction summary

Aldehydes and Ketones
- nomenclature
- nucleophilic addition reactions, formation of hemiacetals and acetals, reactions with Grignard reagents and 1° amines (imine formation)
- oxidation and reduction and NADH/NAD+
- reaction summary

9

Spectroscopy
- mass spectrometry
- infrared spectroscopy
- UV-visible spectroscopy
- 1H NMR spectroscopy

Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
- nomenclature
- structure and acidity
- preparation from oxidation of 1° alcohols/aldehydes and reactions of Grignard reagents with CO2
- acid derivatives: acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, esters, thioesters, amides
- relative reactivities, preparation and hydrolysis
- fats, waxes and oils
- reaction summary

10

Heterocyclic Compounds
- pyridine, pyrrole, furan, thiophene, imidazole
- purine, pyrimidine, relevance to DNA
- tautomerism in heterocycles

11

Stereochemistry
- constitutional isomers and stereoisomers (enantiomers and diastereomers)
- stereogenic centres
- optical activity
- (R), (S) nomenclature and D, L nomenclature
- racemic mixtures and resolution of enantiomers
- compounds with 2 stereogenic centres including meso isomers
- importance of chirality in nature and drug design

12

Carbohydrates
- monosaccharides: nomenclature and stereochemistry
- Haworth projections, open and closed chain forms
- reactions of monosaccharides
- reducing and non-reducing sugars, mutarotation
- disaccharides and polysaccharides: classification and hydrolysis

13

Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins
- structure and classification of amino acids, stereochemistry
- acid base chemistry
- formation and hydrolysis of peptides
- protein structure overview

Revision

 



Textbook


Blackman, Bottle, Schmid, Mocerino and Wille,
     Chemistry, 3rd Edition, 2015 (John Wiley) ISBN: 978-0-7303-1105-8 (paperback) and 978-0-7303-2492-8 (e-text)


Textbook resources, including the answers to the odd-numbered problems of Chemistry, 3rd Edition and the web address for the publisher's site, are available via "Textbook Resources" on USYD eLearning.


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