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CHEM1405 - Syllabus


Chemistry (Veterinary Science)


The order of topics presented here is essentially the order of presentation in the lecture course, although individual lecturers may make some variations from this. Some topics span more than one week.

Jump to week <1> <2> <3> <4> <5> <6> <7> <8> <9> <10> <11> <12> <13>


Week

Topics covered

1

Prologue
- admin. matters
- overview of course

Introduction
- what is chemistry?
- classification and properties of substances
- nomenclature: formulas and names

Introduction to Atomic Structure
- atoms, electrons, protons, neutrons
- atomic and molecular mass
- isotopes

The Periodic Table
- metals and non-metals
- electron configuration
- d-Block elements
- trends in the periodic table

The Biological Periodic Table
- elements essential to sustain life
- elements known to destroy life
- elements that have therapeutic value

2

Stoichiometry
- formulae
- the mole and the Avogadro constant
- ideal gas law
- balancing chemical equations

Chemical Bonding
- ionic and covalent bonds
- Lewis structures and the octet rule
- multiple bonds and resonance structures

3

The Shapes of Molecules
- VSEPR theory of organic compounds
- hybridisation of organic compounds
- electronegativity, bond polarity and dipole moments

Intermolecular forces
- dipole forces
- hydrogen bonds
- dispersion (London) forces

Introduction to Colloids and Surface Chemistry
- the colloidal state, types and properties of colloids
- surface tension
- model of biological membranes
- transport of drugs within mammals

4

Introduction to Chemical Energetics
- first law of thermodynamics
- enthalpy
- Hess' law
- standard enthalpy of formation
- spontaneous processes and entropy
- entropy and the second law of thermodynamics
- the effect of temperature and spontaneity
- entropy change in chemical reactions
- free energy
- free energy and chemical reactions

Chemical Equilibrium
- the equilibrium condition
- the equilibrium constant; Kc and Kp
- heterogeneous equilibrium
- free energy and equilibrium
- uses of equilibrium constants - the reaction quotient
- solving equilibrium problems
- factors affecting equilibrium: Le Chatelier's principle

5

Acids and Bases
- the nature of the hydrated proton
- the Brønsted Lowry theory of acids and bases
- the dissociation of water and the pH scale
- strong, weak and polyprotic acids and strong and weak bases and salts
- relation between Ka and Kb, conjugate pairs
- the common ion effect
- buffer solutions
- examples - acid/base chemistry of natural system

Solutions
- factors affecting gas solubility
- osmotic pressure, dialysis and the artificial kidney

6

Redox Reactions and Introduction to Electrochemistry
- electrochemical cells
- cell EMF, standard reduction potential
- cell potential, electrical work and free energy
- the Nernst equation
- example - cell electrochemistry

Chemical Kinetics
- reaction rate
- dependence of reaction rate on concentration
- dependence of reaction rate on time
- first order rate laws and half-life
- activation energy
- reaction rates and mechanisms
- examples - catalysis and enzymes

7

Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- bonding in carbon compounds
- constitutional isomers
- use of structural formulae
- functional groups

Hydrocarbons: Alkanes, Alkenes, Benzene
- bonding in alkanes
- structure and nomenclature of alkanes
- conformational and configurational isomers of alkanes
- bonding and isomerism in alkenes
- nomenclature of alkenes
- addition reactions of alkenes
- benzene: aromaticity, resonance
- molecular orbital picture
- nomenclature
- toxicity of benzene and aromatic compounds

8

Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers and Thiols
- nomenclature of alcohols and phenols
- alcohols: classification as 1°, 2°, 3°
- hydrogen bonding
- acid-base reactions of alcohols and phenols
- reactions of alcohols: dehydration, oxidation
- thiols: acidity and oxidation to disulfides
- NADH/NAD+ cycle and thiol disulfide redox cycle
- biologically important thiols and disulfides

9

Amines
- amines: classification as 1°, 2°, 3°, 4° and aryl amines (aniline) and structure
- nomenclature
- basicity
- conversion to amides
- examples of biologically active amines

Aldehydes and Ketones
- nomenclature
- bonding in carbonyl compounds
- formation of hemiacetals and acetals: relevance to carbohydrates
- oxidation and reduction and NADH/NAD+

10

Identification of Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
- mass spectrometry
- infrared spectroscopy
- UV-visible spectroscopy
- 1H NMR spectroscopy

Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
- acidity and properties
- acid derivatives: esters, thioesters, amides
- relative reactivities, preparation and hydrolysis
- fats, waxes and oils; examples of natural esters

11

Heterocyclic Compounds
- pyridine, pyrrole, furan, thiophene, imidazole
- relevance to acidity and basicity of heterocycles in biological systems
- purine, pyrimidine
- relevance to DNA
- tautomerism in heterocycles; importance in mutations and genetic code

Shapes of Molecules: Stereochemistry
- constitutional isomers and stereoisomers (enantiomers and diastereomers)
- stereogenic centres
- optical activity
- (R), (S) nomenclature and D, L nomenclature
- racemic mixtures and resolution of enantiomers
- compounds with two stereogenic centres including meso isomers
- importance of chirality in nature and drug design

12

Biomolecules: Carbohydrates
- monosaccharides: stereochemistry
- Haworth projections, mutarotation
- reducing and non-reducing sugars, mutarotation
- disaccharides and polysaccharides: classification and hydrolysis

13

Biomolecules: Proteins and DNA
- structure and classification of amino acids, stereochemistry
- acid base chemistry
- formation and hydrolysis of peptides
- protein structure overview (non-examinable)
- tautomerism in heterocycles
- nucleosides, nucleotides, ATP, ADP, AMP
- DNA structure
 



Textbook


Blackman, Bottle, Schmid, Mocerino and Wille,
     Chemistry, 3rd Edition, 2015 (John Wiley) ISBN: 978-0-7303-1105-8 (paperback) and 978-0-7303-2492-8 (e-text)


Textbook resources, including the answers to the odd-numbered problems of Chemistry, 3rd Edition and the web address for the publisher's site, are available via "Textbook Resources" on USYD eLearning.


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