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CHEM1612 - Learning Outcomes

The learning outcomes for this unit are described below. These outcomes are built from the learning activities in lectures, tutorials, laboratory and independent study. Important attributes are:
  • the ability to apply scientific knowledge and critical thinking to identify, define and analyse problem and create solutions: you will be expected to demonstrate these outcomes on problems drawn from the material presented in the course and to novel situations.
  • the ability to evaluate your own performance and development and to recognize gaps in your knowledge: keep a portfolio of your progress using the 'self assessment tool'
The ways in which these outcomes are assessed are described in detail in the unit outline. When reading this, you should note that the laboratory course is self-contained: material from the lab course is assessed in the lab course and is not re-assessed in the tutorial quizzes or examination.
  • Generic Attributes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  apply scientific knowledge and critical thinking to identify, define and analyse problems, create solutions, evaluate opinions, innovate and improve current practices
    •  gather, evaluate and deploy information relevant to a scientific problem
    •  disseminate new knowledge and engage in debate about scientific issues
    •  recognize the rapid and sometimes major changes in scientific knowledge and technology, and to value the importance of continual growth in knowledge and skills
    •  use a range of computer software packages in the process of gathering, processing and disseminating scientific knowledge
    •  make value judgements about the reliability and relevance of information in a scientific context
    •  evaluate your own performance and development, to recognize gaps in knowledge and acquire new knowledge independently
    •  set achievable and realistic goals and monitor and evaluate progress towards these goals
    •  appreciate sustainability and the impact of science within the broader economic, environmental and socio-cultural context
    •  present and interpret data or other scientific information using graphs, tables, figures and symbols
    •  work independently and as part of a team and to take individual responsibility with a group for developing and achieving goals
    •  actively seek, identify and create effective contacts with others in a professional and social context, and maintain those contacts for mutual benefit
    •  recognize the importance of safety and risk management and compliance with safety procedures
    •  manipulative equations and measurements with due regard for significant figures and unit conventions
  • Laboratory Skills
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  perform careful and safe experiments
    •  accurately report scientific observations
    •  work as a professional scientist with due regard for personal safety and for the safety of those around you
    •  interpret observations in terms of chemical models with appropriate use of chemical equations and calculations
    •  perform calculations containing concentrations, moles and masses
    •  choose and use appropriate glassware for a given task
    •  choose and use balances accurately and appropriately
    •  present and interpret data or other scientific information using graphs, tables, figures and symbols
    •  work as a member of a team and to take individual responsibility within a group for developing and achieving group goals
    •  actively seek, identify and create effective contacts with others in a professional and social context, and maintain those contacts for mutual benefit
  • Introduction to Chemical Energetics
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify the system and the surroundings in a chemical process
    •  identify the ways in which energy is transferred in a chemical process
    •  identify the sign of heat and work in chemical processes
    •  give examples of chemical reactions that do work
    •  calculate energies in Joules or Calories
    •  calculate the energy required to change the temperature of a substance using its heat capacity
    •  calculate the energy released or absorbed by a reaction from data obtained using a bomb calorimeter
    •  explain the origin of the heat of reaction
    •  understand the relationship between internal energy and enthalpy
    •  calculate ΔH of a reaction using Hess's Law of heat summation
    •  calculate ΔH0 of a reaction using tables of ΔfH
    •  appreciate the origin of heat release in net bond breakage
    •  explain the origin of gas expansion and heat transfer in terms of probability
    •  understand the microscopic definition of entropy in terms of the number of ways of arranging a system
    •  define both the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics
    •  predict the entropy changes between some simple chemical systems
    •  calculate ΔS of a reaction using tables of standard entropies
    •  calculate ΔunivS or ΔG of a reaction and predict spontaneity
    •  understand the relationship between ΔunivS and ΔG
    •  calculate ΔG0 based on values of ΔH0 and ΔS0 or from values of ΔfG0
    •  explain the effects of temperature and pressure on ΔG0
    •  explain in principle how one maximizes the useful work obtainable from a chemical reaction
  • Gas Laws
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  describe Boyle's, Charles' and Avogadro's Laws
    •  perform calculations using the ideal gas equation
    •  calculate partial pressures
    •  explain the molecular basis of temperature and pressure
  • Chemical Equilibrium
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •   write down the expression for K for any reaction of known stoichiometry
    •  predict reactants or products dominate the equilibrium state from the value of K
    •  predict the direction of the spontaneous direction of a reaction based on the relative values of Q and K
    •  explain the relationship between K and ΔG0
    •  determine the relationship between Kp and Kc for gas phase equilibria
    •  write equilibria expression for equilibria involving pure liquids and solids
    •  perform calculations to determine equilibrium concentrations from initial concentrations and the value of K
    •  predict qualitatively the effects of changes in concentration, temperature and pressure on an equilibrium based on Le Chatelier's principle
    •  calculate the effect of a change in temperature on K based on its ΔH0
    •  explain how a catalyst speeds up the establishment of equilibrium
    •  understand the basis of heterogeneous equilibrium
    •  explain the experimental conditions of pressure, temperature and metal catalysed used in the industrial production of NH3
  • Solutions
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  calculate concentrations in molarity, molality, mole fraction, % w/w and %v/v and perform dilutions
    •  predict qualitatively the solubilities of gases in liquids based on their chemical structure
    •  determine the sign of ΔH for the dissolution of a gas in a liquid from the temperature dependence of its solubility
    •  understand the effects of pressure on the solubility of gases
    •  explain the molecular origin of "The Bends" and the formation of limestone caves
    •  predict qualitatively the miscibilities of liquids based on their molecular structures
    •  identify solutes as strong, weak or non-electrolytes
    •  explain the origin of vapour pressure lowering and boiling point elevation of a solvent by a non-volatile solute
    •  estimate the vapour pressure of solutions of non-volatile and volatile solutes using Raoult's Law
    •  read a phase diagram
    •  explain the meaning of ideality for gases and solutions
    •  predict deviations from ideal gas behaviour
    •  calculate the pressure of a real gas using the van der Waal's equation
    •  explain the molecular origin of positive and negative deviations from Raoult's Law
    •  explain the principles underlying fractional distillation
    •  predict which combinations of solvents would be expected to be ideal and which non-ideal
    •  understand the concept of activity
    •  calculate expected freezing point depressions of solutions
    •  calculate expected solution osmotic pressures
    •  estimate molar masses from colligative property data
    •  estimate the degree of dissociation of electrolytes from colligative property data
    •  explain the origin of osmotic pressure and how it can be measured
  • Acids and Bases
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  explain the advantages of the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base definition over the Arrhenius definition
    •  understand the relationships between pH, pOH, pKa, pKb and pKw
    •  predict qualitatively the excess species in weak conjugate acid-base pairs at a given pH
    •  calculate the pH, pOH, [H+] and [OH-] for aqueous solutions of strong acids and bases
    •  predict qualitatively the relative acidities of strong acids
    •  calculate the pH, pOH, [H+] and [OH-] for very diluite solutions of strong acids and bases
    •  calculate the pH, pOH, [H+] and [OH-] for aqueous solutions of weak acids and bases
    •  calculate the pKa of a weak, monoprotic acid from the pH of its solution
    •  predict the sequence of strengths of acidities of weak, polyprotic acids
    •  predict qualitatively the pH of salt solutions
    •  calculate the pH of solutions of hydrated metal ions
    •  identify Lewis acids and bases
    •  explain the origin of buffering action
    •  calculate the pH change for addition of acid or base to a buffer
    •  choose an appropriate buffer for any pH value
    •  explain how to prepare a buffer solution
    •  explain the buffering action of HsCO3 / HCO3- in the blood
    •  explain how to perform an acid-base titration
    •  selection an indicator for the titration of any combination of acid and base
    •  predict the charge of an amino acid and its direction of migration in electrophoresis given its pI
    •  explain the origins of positive and negative charges on a protein
    •  predict qualitatively the change in solubility of a protein with changing pH given its pI
  • Solubility
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  convert between concentration units of molarity and ppm
    •  write solubility product expressions
    •  calculate Ksp from solubility data
    •  calculate solubility from Ksp
    •  calculate the effects of a common ion on solubility
    •  predict whether or not a precipitate will form at a given concentration of salt solutions
    •  explain why iron storage proteins are required for iron
  • Oxidation Numbers
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  assign oxidation numbers to elements in compounds, including transition metals in complexes
    •  identify the oxidant and the reductant in a redox reaction
  • Complexes
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  define complex, ligand and coordinate bond
    •  recognize that hydrolysis of metal ions in aqueous solutions gives rise to acidic solutions and predict their relative acidity
    •  recognize chelate ligands, their donor atoms and the stability of their complexes
    •  name coordination complexes and compounds using IUPAC nomenclature
    •  identify isomers including structural, geometrical and optical isomerism for tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral complexes
    •  write down the form of the stability constant, Kstab, for a complex
    •  recognize and predict how the formation of stable complexes can increase the apparent solubility of salts by combining Ksp and Kstab expressions
  • Redox Reactions and Introduction to Electrochemistry
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  relate the sign of the electrode potential to the direction of spontaneous change
    •  combine half cells to produce balanced redox reactions and to calculate cell potentials
    •  identify the species which are being oxidzied and those being reduced in a redox reaction
    •  write down the cell notation for a Galvanic cell including ones involving inert electrodes
    •  use the Nernst equation to calculate the effect of concentration on the cell potential
    •  relate the electrode potential and the reaction quotient
    •  relate the standard electrode potential and the equilibrium constant
    •  use Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis to relate the amount of product to the electric current applied
  • Chemical Kinetics
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  determine the rate law from experimental data, including the rate constant and its units
    •  identify the reaction order from the rate law
    •  use the integrated rate law and half life for 1st order reactions
    •  recognize the effect of temperature on reaction rates and be able to use the Arrhenius equation in calculations
    •  recognize that chemical reactions result from multistep processes called reaction mechanisms
    •  recognize the role of activation energy and collision frequency in determining rates
    •  work out a rate law from a simple proposed mechanism
    •  draw reaction profile diagrams for multi-step reactions with appropriate activation energies and intermediates
    •  calculate Ea and A from the temperature variation of the rate constant
    •  know how catalysts effect the rate of reactions without altering equilibrium constants
    •  explain the Michaelis-Menton mechanism of enzyme catalysis
    •  use the steady-state approximation to derive the rate law for a multi-step reaction involving a reactive intermediate
  • Radiochemistry
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  recognise nuclear reactions, including the major spontaneous decay mechanisms.
    •  define and distinguish between nucleons, nuclides and isotopes, X-rays & gamma rays, decay series and daughter isotopes.
    •  balance nuclear reactions
    •  recognise stable and unstable nuclides
    •  predict the decay mechanism for an unstable isotope
    •  explain the main factors that contributes to effective radiation dose, including penetrating power, activity and energy
    •  explain the main mechanism of biological damage by ionizing radiation.
    •  explain the use of radioactive isotopes in medical imaging, and distinguish the information obtained from X-rays
    •  explain how isotope generators produce isotopes such as 99mTc for medical imaging, and give some examples of its use.
    •  explain PET, the generation of radioisotopes by a cyclotron, and know the kinds of isotopes produced
  • Introduction to Colloids and Surface Chemistry
      By the end of this topic, you should be able to
    •  identify the characteristics of a colloid
    •  classify a colloid according to the nature of the continuous and dispersed phases
    •  explain the electrostatic and steric stabilization of colloids
    •  understand the chemical nature and action of surfactants and detergents
    •  explain the main mechanisms of coagulation of colloids, including the role of electrolytes
    •  explain the molecular origin of surface tension
    •  describe the function and chemical structure of biological membranes
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