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CHEM1901 - Resources for Week 10

Topics and Learning Outcomes

  • Nitrogen Chemistry and Compounds
    •  write down an example compound for all the oxidation states of nitrogen, including hydrides, halides, oxyacids and oxides
    •  give several examples of nitrogen-containing explosives and explain how they function
    •  give a molecular interpretation/rationalization for the exothermicity of combustion reactions leading to CO2, H2O and N2
    •  distinguish between (explosive) decomposition and combustion reactions
    •  list the oxides and oxyacids of nitrogen and calculate the oxidation number of nitrogen
    •  distinguish primary and secondary pollutants
    •  write down the key reactions for the nitrogen atmospheric cycle, and use them to explain the generation of secondary pollutants nitrogen dioxide and ozone
    •  describe the mechanism of atmospheric generation of nitric acid through the nitrate radical, and explain why this becomes significant at dusk and is affected by humidity and pollution
    •  use the Second Law to determine whether a reaction will be spontaneous at high or low temperatures (or neither or both)
  • Equilibrium
    •  explain chemical equilibrium as a reaction mixture whose composition is unchanging in time, and relate this to the kinetic picture of equal rates of formation and decomposition of reactants and products
    •  define the equilibrium constant, and write it down for an arbitrary gas phase reaction
    •  calculate the value of the equilibrium constant for a reverse reaction from its value for a forward reaction, and if the stoichiometry is changed
    •  calculate the equilibrium constant for a reaction obtained by combining two other reactions
    •  calculate equilibrium compositions from starting compositions and the equilibrium constant for a simple gas phase reaction
    •  calculate the equilibrium composition for a chemical reaction from its equilibrium constant and mass balance information
    •  use appropriate aproximations for simplifying such calculations
    •  define the reaction quotient and use it to predict the direction of change in a reaction as it approaches equilibrium, or if it is perturbed from equilibrium.
    •  use the enthalpy of reaction to predict how the equilibrium constant changes with temperature
    •  explain that catalysts change the pathway and rate of reaction but not the position of equilibrium
    •  explain that entropy depends on concentration, but enthalpy can be treated as independent of concentration
    •  explain the reasons for the conditions used in the Haber Process, and apply the same reasoning to the optimization of other chemical processes, such as smelting
  • Equilibrium and Thermochemistry in Industrial Processes
    •  identify and explain the major steps in mineral extraction and purification into its metal
    •  Identify the major forms of mineral sources of metals and other elements
    •  read and interpret an Ellingham diagram, and use it to predict the temperature at which metal formation will be spontaneous
    •  relate activity and electronegativity to oxide stability
    •  define the terms gangue, slag, roasting and smelting
    •  identify (but not list) the top ten chemicals by production mass, their origins and uses
    •  explain how sulfuric acid is produced, including the thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of the synthetic steps
    •  describe the key elements of the nitrogen biocycle
    •  describe the preparation of phosphoric acid, and the relevance of ammonia and sulfuric acid in phosphate derivatives

Textbook and eBook References

  • Chemical Equilibrium - Chapter 9
  • Equilibrium and Thermochemistry in Industrial Processes - Chapter 9
the eBook reference is free and is taken from high quality sources.

Lecture Notes, Tutorial Worksheets & Answers and Suggested Exam Questions

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ChemCAL and iChem Resources

Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium and Thermochemistry in Industrial Processes

Contributed Links and Resources

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Chemical Equilibrium -  
  Using ICE tables  
Description: Tutorial on using ICE tables to solve chemical equilibrium problems
Tags: equilibrium | ICE tables  |  Contributed by Adam Bridgeman
  Chemical equilibrium tutorial  
Tags: equilibrium | Le Chatelier's principle  |  Contributed by Adam Bridgeman
  Le Chatelier's Principle  
Tags: eqilibrium | Le Chatelier's principle | reaction quotient  |  Contributed by Adam Bridgeman
Equilibrium and Thermochemistry in Industrial Processes -  

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