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CHEM1904 - Syllabus

Chemistry 1B (Special Studies Program)

The order of topics presented here is essentially the order of presentation in the lecture course, although individual lecturers may make some variations from this. Some topics span more than one week.

Jump to week <1> <2> <3> <4> <5> <6> <7> <8> <9> <10> <11> <12> <13>


Topics covered


Representations of Molecular Structure
- revise VSEPR, bonding and shape
- shape and hybridisation for alkanes, alkenes and alkynes
- stick notation
- functional groups and nomenclature

- constitutional isomers
- conformational isomers
- cis/trans isomers of cyclic alkanes

Structural Determination
- mass spectrometry
- infrared spectroscopy
- UV-visible spectroscopy
- 1H & 13C NMR spectroscopy
- MRI and medical applications
- problem solving exercises
- p-bonds and structure
- E/Z isomers
- addition reactions, mechanism of electrophilic addition
- Markovnikov's rule: carbocation stability
- reaction summary (addition reactions, orientation of addition and carbocation stability)

- addition reactions

Aromatic Compounds
- benzene: aromaticity, resonance
- electrophilic aromatic substitution
- compare to alkenes

Organic Mechanisms & Molecular Orbitals
- structure of alcohols, phenols and ethers
- H-bonding and physical properties of alcohols
- acid-base reactions of alcohols & phenols: resonance stabilisation and stability of conjugate base
-oxidation reactions
-elimination reactions and Zaitsev's rule

- structure of amines
- H-bonding and physical properties of amines
- amines as bases

Introduction to Synthetic Strategies

- stereogenic centres
- optical activity
- (R), (S) nomenclature

Stereochemistry continued
- racemic mixtures
- compounds with 2 stereogenic centres
- importance of chirality in nature and drug design

Organic Halogen Compounds
- substitiution reactions and scope
- SN1 and SN2 mechanisms: compare carbocation stability and steric hindrance
- consequences of stereochemistry
- elimination reactions
- Grignard formation

Aldehydes and Ketones
- structure and polatiry
- nucleophilic addition reactions of Grignard reagents and hydride reducing agents
- oxidation of aldehydes

Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
- carboxylic acids
- acidity and resonance stabilisation of conjugate base
- reduction to primary alcohols
- formation of acid chlorides
- derivatives (acid halides, anhydrides, esters and amides)

Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives Continued
- acid halides, anhydrides, esters & amides
- relative reactivity of carboxylic acid derivatives
- interconversion and hydrolysis of derivatives
- acyl substitution mechanism
- polymers and example of nylon66

Synthetic Strategies
- design of target molecules
- protecting groups
- problem solving

Strong Acids and Bases
- electrolytes - strong and weak
- autoionisation of water
- conjugate acid-base pairs

Weak Acids and Bases
- carboxylic acids, carbonic acids, phenols
- ammonia, amines

Calculations Involving pKa
- calculations involving pKa and pKb
- buffers
- common ion effect

Periodic Trends in Aqueous Oxides
- acids and bases

Intermolecular Forces and Phase Behaviour
- boiling point trends
- solid structure (ice, etc.)

Physical States and Phase Diagrams
- single component
- enthalpy change
- entropy (qualitative) in gas-liquid equilibrium and endothermicity
- trends in elemental freezing and boiling points

Phase Diagrams (2 Components)
- water/salt equilibrium, saturated solutions
- alloys
- miscibility

Crystal Structures

Solubility Equilibrium
- calculations involving Ksp
- solubility trends as a function of polarity of solvents (e.g. alcohols in water)
- solubility of ionic solids
- role of intermolecular forces in solubility
- heats of solvation

Hydrolysis of Metal Ions
- introduction ot the ligand bond

Metals in Biology
- introduction to transition metals

Coordination Chemistry
- complexes
- cis/trans
- oxidation states
- colour

- variability of reaction rates
- review of 1st order rate constants from nuclear chemistry and introduction to 2nd order rate constants
- mechanism and rate determining steps

Kinetics - Influences
- temperature and the Arrhenius relation
- diffusion constants
- solvent polarity

Kinetics - Catalysis
- altering the mechanism
- industrial example
- enzymes


Blackman, Bottle, Schmid, Mocerino and Wille,
     Chemistry, 3rd Edition, 2015 (John Wiley) ISBN: 978-0-7303-1105-8 (paperback) and 978-0-7303-2492-8 (e-text)

Textbook resources, including the answers to the odd-numbered problems of Chemistry, 3rd Edition and the web address for the publisher's site, are available via "Textbook Resources" on USYD eLearning.

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